Case Studies

The policy analysis, scenario development, behavioural experiments and modelling will be carried out in six case studies. This includes five regional case studies in four European countries (Bulgaria, Germany, Spain, and Sweden) and a cross-country case study at the EU-27 level. The case studies are selected to reflect the variety of EU bio-geographical regions (e.g., Boreal, Continental, Mediterranean), policy and governance systems (unitary/federal states) and socio-economic (richer/poorer EU countries) contexts. Upscaling of the results be achieved through cross-comparison and active science-policy-practice interface across the (sub-) national and EU-27 level case studies.a

Bulgaria - Yundola and Teteven 

Mixed (spruce, fir, pine, beech) forests in Rila-Rhodope high mountains and beech forests in the Balkan high mountains; forest use for timber, bioenergy, biodiversity (Natura 2000), drinking water (WFD); old growth forests; restoration needs after climate change impacts. 

Germany - Baden-Württemberg  and North Rhine-Westphalia 

BW: Mixed (douglas fir, spruce, beech) forests in the Back Forest low mountains and lowlands riparian deciduous (oak, beech, hornbeam) forests along the Rhine river; active forest use for timber, biodiversity (Natura 2000 sites), drinking water (WFD) and recreation; restoration needs after climate change impacts (storms; bark beetle).

NRW: Low mountain spruce forests and lowlands riparian deciduous (oak, beech) forests along the Rhine river; very active forest use for timber, biodiversity (Natura 2000), drinking water and recreation; severe restoration needs after climate change impacts (storms, bark beetle).

Spain - Catalonia

Pine forests in central Catalonia in mountains and lowland; little active forest use for timber, but important services such water (WFD), biodiversity (Natura 2000), noon wood forest products and recreation; restoration needs after climate change driven drought and wildfires


A range of managed and unmanaged forest ecosystems across bio-geographical regions (e.g., Boreal, Continental, Mediterranean) in the EU-27 used for timber, biodiversity (Natura 2000; old-growth forests), climate and water protection. Restoration needs after climate change impacts (storms, fires, bark beetle), and intensive forestry. 

Sweden - Norrbotten County

Spruce and pine dominated forests in lowland and mountainous areas; intensively used for timber production but also including protected (nature reserves; Natura 2000) and non-protected old growth forests with high conservation/biodiversity values. Also recreation, non-wood products, reindeer pastures and cultural values. Restoration needs exist in intensively used forest areas. 


7 countries 

  • Coordinator: Forest and Environmental Policies, University of Freiburg, Freiburg,Germany
  • Ecosystems Services and Management, International Institute for Applied SystemsAnalysis, Laxenburg, Austria
  • Business Management, University of Forestry Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria
  • Bioeconomy, European Forest Institute Joensuu, Joensuu, Finland
  • Resilience, European Forest Institute Bonn, Bonn, GermanyBioeconomy and Governance & Landscape dynamics and biodiversity, Forest Sciences andTechnology Centre of Catalonia, Solsona, Spain
  • Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå,Sweden
  • Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden


Forest Biodiversity Conservation and Restoration Policy and Management in Europe

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